Recent advances in understanding of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models, are reviewed. Particular attention is directed to the outcome of a COST-715 Expert Meeting held in April 2000,as well as experiments initiated by that action. In addition, recent complete parameterisations of urban effects in meso-scale models are reviewed. Given that neither the surface energy balance, nor its components, normally are directly measured at meteorological stations, nor are there guidelines for the set-up of representative meteorological stations in urban areas, this paper also provides recommendations to close these gaps.
M. Piringer, C. S. B. Grimmond, S. M. Joffre, P. Mestayer, D. R. Middleton, M. W. Rotach, A. Baklanov, K. De Ridder, J. Ferreira and E. Guilloteau, et al. “Investigating the Surface Energy Balance in Urban Areas – Recent Advances and Future Needs.” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus, Volume 2, Numbers 5-6 (2002), 1-16, DOI: 10.1023/A:1021302824331.
Source: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus
Publication Date: April 2002