Relationships between sources and levels of particulate matter and climatic parameters (urban heat island intensity, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity) were investigated in the coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s largest city. Measurements were made during the wet and dry seasons of 2001 at an urban and a rural site. Five elements were used to represent different sources: K in fine particles (biomass), Zn in fine particles (industry), Cl in coarse particles (sea spray), Ti in coarse particles (soil) and Pb in fine particles (traffic). The concentrations of these elements varied considerably between the urban and rural site during both the wet and dry season, with the urban site in the dry season having the highest concentrations. Diurnal differences are also apparent, although not as straightforward. In an attempt to explain these differences, correlations between all elements and the climatic parameters were investigated. The results show that the nocturnal urban heat island intensity was positively correlated and wind speed negatively correlated with particulate levels, presumably due to the increased atmospheric stability.
P Jonsson, C Bennet, I Eliasson, E Selin Lindgren, Suspended particulate matter and its relations to the urban climate in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 38, Issue 25, August 2004, Pages 4175-4181, ISSN 1352-2310, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.04.021.
Source: Atmospheric Environment
Publication Date: April 2004