In this paper, the long-term trends in surface temperature in several large Asian cities (Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka, Taipei, Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta) have been analyzed for estimating the effects of urban warming. A new index, E-HII, is proposed: it is the value obtained by subtracting the temperature data of the four grids around the city from the observational temperature data in the city. Osaka shows the largest E-HII, increasing from approximately 2.4 °C in 1901 to almost 3 °C after 1981. The E-HIIs of Seoul, Tokyo, and Taipei, have increased by 1 °C to 2 °C. Jakarta and Bangkok exhibited a lower E-HII. E-HIIs of Manila and Bangkok have been increasing rapidly after 1961.
Kataoka , Kumi. “Urban Warming trends in several large Asian cities over the last 100 years .” Science of the Total Environment . : 3112-3119 . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969708009558 (accessed April 18, 2012).
Publication Date: April 0012